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Map of Uzbekistan
Introduction Uzbekistan
Background:
Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
Geography Uzbekistan
Location:
Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
Geographic coordinates:
41 00 N, 64 00 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Coastline:
0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims:
none (doubly landlocked)
Climate:
mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Terrain:
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use:
arable land: 10.51%
permanent crops: 0.76%
other: 88.73% (2005)
Irrigated land:
42,810 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
NA
Environment - current issues:
shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
People Uzbekistan
Population:
27,307,134 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 32.9% (male 4,572,721/female 4,403,405)
15-64 years: 62.3% (male 8,420,174/female 8,594,478)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 539,336/female 777,020) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 22.7 years
male: 22 years
female: 23.3 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.7% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
26.36 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
7.84 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 69.99 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 74.14 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 65.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.58 years
male: 61.19 years
female: 68.14 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.91 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
11,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 500 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani
Ethnic groups:
Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Religions:
Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Languages:
Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.6%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
Government Uzbekistan
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: Ozbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Capital:
name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 20 N, 69 18 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence:
1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Constitution:
new constitution adopted 8 December 1992
Legal system:
evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent judicial system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYAYEV (since 11 December 2003)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held 9 January 2000 (next to be held in 2007); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president
election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 91.9%, Abdulkhafiz JALALOV 4.2%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an Upper House or Senate (100 seats; 84 members are elected by regional governing councils to serve five-year terms and 16 are appointed by the president) and a Lower House or Legislative Chamber (120 seats; elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 26 December 2004 and 9 January 2005 (next to be held December 2009)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LDPU 41, NDP 32, Fidokorlar 17, MTP 11, Adolat 9, unaffiliated 10
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
Political parties and leaders:
Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TOSHMUHAMMADOVA, chairman]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Xurshid DOSTMUHAMMADOV, chief]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHODMONOV, chairman]; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV, first secretary]; Self-Sacrificers Party or Fidokorlar National Democratic Party [Ahtam TURSUNOV, chief]; note - Fatherland Progress Party merged with Self-Sacrificers Party
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Agrarian and Entrepreneurs' Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 December 1992; Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasilia INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers' Party or Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigara KHIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Tolib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman]
International organization participation:
AsDB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdulaziz KAMILOV
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jon PURNELL
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 700093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and 12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant
Economy Uzbekistan
Economy - overview:
Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it relies heavily on cotton production as the major source of export earnings. Other major export earners include gold, natural gas, and oil. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted the obligations of Article VIII under the International Monetary Fund (IMF), providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Potential investment by Russia and China in Uzbekistan's gas and oil industry would increase economic growth prospects. In November 2005, Russian President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an "alliance" treaty, which included provisions for economic and business cooperation. Russian businesses have shown increased interest in Uzbekistan, especially in mining, telecom, and oil and gas. In December 2005, the Russians opened a "Trade House" to support and develop Russian-Uzbek business and economic ties.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$48.24 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$9.86 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
7.2% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,800 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 34.2%
industry: 22.9%
services: 43% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
14.26 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 44%
industry: 20%
services: 36% (1995)
Unemployment rate:
0.7% officially, plus another 20% underemployed (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
28% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 22% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26.8 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.9% (2005 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $2.815 billion
expenditures: $2.917 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
36.1% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Industries:
textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, gold petroleum, natural gas, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate:
7.7% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
46.52 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 88.2%
hydro: 11.8%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
48.45 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
5.36 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
10.55 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
152,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - consumption:
120,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - exports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
600 million bbl (1 January 2005)
Natural gas - production:
55.8 billion cu m (2004)
Natural gas - consumption:
49.3 billion cu m (2004)
Natural gas - exports:
6.5 billion cu m (2004)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2004)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
1.875 trillion cu m (1 January 2005)
Current account balance:
$1.082 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
$5 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
cotton 41.5%, gold 9.6%, energy products 9.6%, mineral fertilizers, ferrous metals, textiles, food products, automobiles (1998)
Exports - partners:
Russia 25.2%, China 12.6%, Turkey 6.7%, Ukraine 5.7%, Bangladesh 5%, Poland 4.4%, Tajikistan 4.3% (2005)
Imports:
$3.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment 49.8%, foodstuffs 16.4%, chemicals, metals (1998)
Imports - partners:
Russia 26.9%, South Korea 15.4%, Germany 8.9%, China 7.2%, Kazakhstan 6.5%, Turkey 4.9%, Ukraine 4.7% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.681 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
$5.032 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$91.6 million from the US (2005)
Currency (code):
Uzbekistani soum (UZS)
Currency code:
UZS
Exchange rates:
Uzbekistani soum per US dollar - 1,020 (2005), 971.265 (2004), 771.029 (2002), 423.832 (2002), 236.61 (2001)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Uzbekistan
Telephones - main lines in use:
1,717,100 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
544,100 (2004)
Telephone system:
general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization
domestic: the domestic telephone system is being expanded and technologically improved, particularly in Tashkent (Toshkent) and Samarqand, under contracts with prominent companies in industrialized countries; moreover, by 1998, six cellular networks had been placed in operation - four of the GSM type (Global System for Mobile Communication), one D-AMPS type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), and one AMPS type (Advanced Mobile Phone System)
international: country code - 998; linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications; Inmarsat also provides an international connection, albeit an expensive one; satellite earth stations - NA (1998)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 10 (1998)
Radios:
10.8 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
4 (plus two repeaters that relay Russian programs), 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent; approximately 20 stations in regional capitals (2003)
Televisions:
6.4 million (1997)
Internet country code:
.uz
Internet hosts:
7,124 (2005)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
42 (2000)
Internet users:
880,000 (2005)
Transportation Uzbekistan
Airports:
61 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 34
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 5 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 25 (2006)
Pipelines:
gas 9,149 km; oil 869 km; refined products 33 km (2004)
Railways:
total: 3,950 km
broad gauge: 3,950 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2005)
Roadways:
total: 81,600 km
paved: 71,237 km
unpaved: 10,363 km (1999)
Waterways:
1,100 km (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Termiz (Amu Darya)
Military Uzbekistan
Military branches:
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 6,340,220
females age 18-49: 6,432,072 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 4,609,621
females age 18-49: 5,383,233 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 324,722
females age 18-49: 317,062 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$200 million (FY97)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2% (FY97)
Transnational Issues Uzbekistan
Disputes - international:
prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; delimitation with Kazakhstan complete with demarcation underway; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 39,202 (Tajikistan) 5,238 (Afghanistan)
IDPs: 3,000 (forced population transfers by government from villages near Tajikistan border) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan

This page was last updated on 19 September, 2006