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Map of Peru
Introduction Peru
Background:
Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government - the first democratically elected president of Quechua ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, returned to the presidency with promises to improve social conditions.
Geography Peru
Location:
Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Geographic coordinates:
10 00 S, 76 00 W
Map references:
South America
Area:
total: 1,285,220 sq km
land: 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total: 5,536 km
border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km
Coastline:
2,414 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate:
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Terrain:
western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Natural resources:
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Land use:
arable land: 2.88%
permanent crops: 0.47%
other: 96.65% (2005)
Irrigated land:
12,000 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Environment - current issues:
deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
People Peru
Population:
28,302,603 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 30.9% (male 4,456,195/female 4,300,233)
15-64 years: 63.7% (male 9,078,123/female 8,961,981)
65 years and over: 5.3% (male 709,763/female 796,308) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 25.3 years
male: 25 years
female: 25.5 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.32% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
20.48 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
6.23 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 30.94 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 33.49 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.84 years
male: 68.05 years
female: 71.71 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.51 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.5% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
82,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
4,200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups:
Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 81%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, other Christian 0.7%, other 0.6%, unspecified or none 16.3% (2003 est.)
Languages:
Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.7%
male: 93.5%
female: 82.1% (2004 est.)
Government Peru
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
Government type:
constitutional republic
Capital:
name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Independence:
28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Constitution:
31 December 1993
Legal system:
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; note - members of the military and national police may not vote
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006)
note: Prime Minister Jorge DEL CASTILLO Galvez (since 28 August 2006) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential and congressional elections held 9 April 2006, with runoff election held 4 June 2006; next to be held April 2011
election results: Alan GARCIA elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alan GARCIA 52.5%, Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 47.5%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 April 2006 (next to be held April 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 21.2%, PAP 20.6%, UN 15.3%, AF 13.1%, FC 7.1%, PP 4.1%, RN 4.0%; seats by party - UPP 45, PAP 36, UN 17, AF 13, FC 5, PP 2, RN 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF - a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90, Nueva Mayoria, and Si Cumple [Martha CHAVEZ Cossio]; Centrist Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC - a coalition of Accion Popular, Somos Peru, and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes [Valentin PANIAGUA Corazoa]; Independent Moralizing Front (Frente Independiente Moralizador) or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; Nationalist Party Uniting Peru (Partido Nacionalista Uniendo al Peru) or UPP - a coalition of Union for Peru (UPP) and Peruvian Nationalist Party (PNP) [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; National Restoration (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [David WAISMAN]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP - also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA [Alan GARCIA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
International organization participation:
APEC, CAN, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, ONUB, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Eduardo FERRERO Costa
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Hartford, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador J. Curtis STRUBLE
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
Flag description:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
Economy Peru
Economy - overview:
Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4 percent per year during the period 2002-2005, with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels in late 2004, reflecting investor optimism regarding the government's prudent fiscal policies and openness to trade and investment. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, the TOLEDO administration remained unpopular in 2005, and unemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high. Economic growth will be driven by the Camisea natural gas megaproject and by exports of minerals, textiles, and agricultural products. Peru is expected to sign a free-trade agreement with the United States in early 2006.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$164.5 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$69.81 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
6.7% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$5,900 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 8%
industry: 27%
services: 65% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
9.06 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 9%
industry: 18%
services: 73% (2001)
Unemployment rate:
7.6% in metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
54% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 0.8%
highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
49.8 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.6% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
18.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $21.87 billion
expenditures: $22.47 billion; including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion for general government, but excluding private enterprises (2005 est.)
Public debt:
38% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish
Industries:
mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
6.9% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
22.68 billion kWh (2003 est.)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 14.5%
hydro: 84.7%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.8% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
21.09 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
120,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
157,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
49,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
370 million bbl (2005 est.)
Natural gas - production:
560 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
910 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
247.1 billion cu m (2005)
Current account balance:
$1.03 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
$15.95 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee
Exports - partners:
US 31.1%, China 10.8%, Chile 6.6%, Canada 5.9%, Switzerland 4.6% (2005)
Imports:
$12.15 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper
Imports - partners:
US 18.2%, China 8.5%, Brazil 8%, Ecuador 7.4%, Colombia 6.1%, Argentina 5.1%, Chile 5.1%, Venezuela 4.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$14.18 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
$30.94 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$491 million (2002)
Currency (code):
nuevo sol (PEN)
Currency code:
PEN
Exchange rates:
nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.2958 (2005), 3.4132 (2004), 3.4785 (2003), 3.5165 (2002), 3.5068 (2001)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Peru
Telephones - main lines in use:
2,250,500 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
4,092,600 (2004)
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate for most requirements
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: country code - 51; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Radios:
6.65 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Televisions:
3.06 million (1997)
Internet country code:
.pe
Internet hosts:
205,532 (2005)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
10 (2000)
Internet users:
4.57 million (2005)
Transportation Peru
Airports:
268 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 54
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 214
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 63
under 914 m: 124 (2006)
Heliports:
1 (2006)
Pipelines:
gas 388 km; oil 1,557 km; refined products 13 km (2004)
Railways:
total: 3,462 km
standard gauge: 2,962 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 500 km 0.914-m gauge (2005)
Roadways:
total: 78,672 km
paved: 10,314 km (including 276 km of expressways)
unpaved: 68,358 km (2003)
Waterways:
8,808 km
note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 38,954 GRT/62,255 DWT
by type: cargo 3, petroleum tanker 1
foreign-owned: 1 (US 1)
registered in other countries: 14 (Panama 14) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Callao, Iquitos, Matarani, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas; note - Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
Military Peru
Military branches:
Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes naval air, naval infantry, and coast guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru; FAP)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory military service (1999)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 6,647,874
females age 18-49: 6,544,408 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 4,938,417
females age 18-49: 5,278,511 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 277,105
females age 18-49: 269,799 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$829.3 million (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.4% (2003 est.)
Transnational Issues Peru
Disputes - international:
Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral law to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundary along the parallel of latitude to an equidistance line which favors Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru does not support Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 60,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer; cultivation of coca in Peru fell 15% to 31,150 hectares between 2002 and the end of 2003; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia for processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa

This page was last updated on 19 September, 2006