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CIA Seal  World Factbook Seal Montenegro
Flag of Montenegro
Map of Montenegro
Introduction Montenegro
Background:
The use of the name Montenegro began in the 15th century when the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta; over subsequent centuries it was able to maintain its independence from the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro became a theocratic state ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. After World War I, Montenegro was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and, at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser union of Serbia and Montenegro. Following a three-year postponement, Montenegro held an independence referendum in the spring of 2006 under rules set by the EU. The vote for severing ties with Serbia exceeded the 55% threshold, allowing Montenegro to formally declare its independence on 3 June 2006.
Geography Montenegro
Location:
Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Geographic coordinates:
42 30 N, 19 18 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 14,026 sq km
land: 13,812 sq km
water: 214 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total: 625 km
border countries: Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Serbia 203 km
Coastline:
293.5 km
Maritime claims:
NA
Climate:
Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
Terrain:
highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
Natural resources:
bauxite, hydroelectricity
Land use:
arable land: 13.7%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 85.3%
Irrigated land:
NA
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
Geography - note:
strategic location along the Adriatic coast
People Montenegro
Population:
630,548 (2004)
Population growth rate:
3.5% (2004)
Birth rate:
12.6 births/1,000 population (2004)
Death rate:
9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2004)
Nationality:
noun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin
Ethnic groups:
Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Muslims, Croats, Roma) 12%
Religions:
Orthodox, Muslim, Roman Catholic
Languages:
Serbian (Ijekavian dialect - official)
Government Montenegro
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Montenegro
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: Republika Crna Gora
local short form: Crna Gora
former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Podgorica (administrative capital)
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: Cetinje (capital city)
Administrative divisions:
21 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Andrijevia, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pluzine, Pljevlja, Podgornica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
Independence:
3 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro); note - a referendum on independence was held 21 May 2006
National holiday:
National Day, 13 July
Constitution:
12 October 1992 (was approved by the Assembly)
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 11 May 2003)
head of government: Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 8 January 2003)
cabinet: Ministries act as cabinet
elections: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 11 May 2003 (next to be held in 2008); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly
election results: Filip VUJANOVIC elected on the third round; Filip VUJANOVIC 63.3%, Miodrag ZIVKOVIC 30.8%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly (77 seats, elected by direct vote for four-year terms)
elections: last held 21 October 2002 (next to be held October 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - Democratic List for a European Montenegro 48%, Together for Change 38%, Liberal Alliance of Montenegro 6%; seats by party - Democratic List for a European Montenegro (DPS 30, SDP 7, other 2), Together for Change (SNP 19, SNS 6, NS 5), Liberal Alliance of Montenegro 4, other 4
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (five judges with nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro [Vesna PEROVIC]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC]; Serbian People's Party of Montenegro or SNS [Andrija MANDIC]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]; Socialist People's Party or SNP [Predrag BULATOVIC]
International organization participation:
UN, OSCE
Flag description:
a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered
Economy Montenegro
Economy - overview:
The republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and continues to maintain its own central bank, uses the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collects customs tariffs, and manages its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the IMF, World Bank, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Montenegro is pursuing its own membership in the World Trade Organization as well as negotiating a Stabilization and Association agreement with the European Union in anticipation of eventual membership. Severe unemployment remains a key political and economic problem for this entire region. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$2.412 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.125 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
NA
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,800 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: % NA
industry: % NA
services: % NA
Labor force:
259,100 (2004)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 30%
services: 68% (2004)
Unemployment rate:
27.7% (2005)
Population below poverty line:
12.2% (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.4% (2004)
Investment (gross fixed):
% of GDP NA
Budget:
revenues: NA
expenditures: NA
Public debt:
% of GDP NA
Agriculture - products:
grains, tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheepherding; commercial fishing negligible
Industries:
steelmaking, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
Electricity - production:
2.864 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
NA
Oil - production:
NA
Oil - consumption:
NA
Natural gas - consumption:
NA
Current account balance:
NA
Exports:
$171.3 million (2003)
Exports - partners:
Switzerland 83.9%, Italy 6.1%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.3% (2003)
Imports:
$601.7 million (2003)
Imports - partners:
Greece 10.2%, Italy 10.2%, Germany 9.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.2% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
NA
Debt - external:
NA
Economic aid - recipient:
NA
Currency (code):
euro (EUR)
Exchange rates:
euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8089 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Montenegro
Telephones - main lines in use:
177,663 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
543,220 (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
domestic: GSM wireless service, available through two providers with national coverage, is growing rapidly
international: two international switches connect the national system
Radio broadcast stations:
31 (2004)
Television broadcast stations:
13 (2004)
Internet users:
50,000 (2004)
Transportation Montenegro
Airports:
5 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Railways:
total: 250 km
standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 169 km) (2005)
Roadways:
total: 7,353 km
paved: 4,274 km
unpaved: 3,079 km (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 5
by type: cargo 4, chemical tanker 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Finland 1)
registered in other countries: 4 (The Bahamas 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Bar
Military Montenegro
Military - note:
Montenegrin plans call for the establishment of a fully professional armed forces
Transnational Issues Montenegro
Disputes - international:
ethnic Albanians in Kosovo refuse demarcation of the boundary with Macedonia in accordance with the 2000 Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro delimitation agreement, which includes a section of boundary with Montenegro

This page was last updated on 19 September, 2006