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Flag of Belgium
Map of Belgium
Introduction Belgium
Background:
Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830; it was occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. The country prospered in the past half century as a modern, technologically advanced European state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions between the Dutch-speaking Flemings of the north and the French-speaking Walloons of the south have led in recent years to constitutional amendments granting these regions formal recognition and autonomy.
Geography Belgium
Location:
Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the Netherlands
Geographic coordinates:
50 50 N, 4 00 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 30,528 sq km
land: 30,278 sq km
water: 250 sq km
Area - comparative:
about the size of Maryland
Land boundaries:
total: 1,385 km
border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km, Netherlands 450 km
Coastline:
66.5 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: geographic coordinates define outer limit
continental shelf: median line with neighbors
Climate:
temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
Terrain:
flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: North Sea 0 m
highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m
Natural resources:
construction materials, silica sand, carbonates
Land use:
arable land: 27.42%
permanent crops: 0.69%
other: 71.89%
note: includes Luxembourg (2005)
Irrigated land:
400 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
flooding is a threat along rivers and in areas of reclaimed coastal land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes
Environment - current issues:
the environment is exposed to intense pressures from human activities: urbanization, dense transportation network, industry, extensive animal breeding and crop cultivation; air and water pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries; uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now resolved) have slowed progress in tackling environmental challenges
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the European Union and NATO
People Belgium
Population:
10,379,067 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.7% (male 883,254/female 846,099)
15-64 years: 65.9% (male 3,450,879/female 3,389,565)
65 years and over: 17.4% (male 746,569/female 1,062,701) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 40.9 years
male: 39.6 years
female: 42.1 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.13% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
10.38 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
10.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.62 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.77 years
male: 75.59 years
female: 82.09 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.64 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
10,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Belgian(s)
adjective: Belgian
Ethnic groups:
Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%
Languages:
Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
Government Belgium
Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium
conventional short form: Belgium
local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie
local short form: Belgique/Belgie
Government type:
federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy
Capital:
name: Brussels
geographic coordinates: 50 50 N, 4 20 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Dutch: provincies, singular - provincie) and 3 regions* (French: regions; Dutch: gewesten); Antwerpen, Brabant Wallon, Brussels* (Bruxelles), Flanders*, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams-Brabant, Wallonia*, West-Vlaanderen
note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of government (federal, regional, and four linguistic communities) with a complex division of responsibilities
Independence:
4 October 1830 (a provisional government declares independence from the Netherlands); 21 July 1831 (King Leopold I ascends to the throne)
National holiday:
21 July (1831) ascension to the Throne of King Leopold I
Constitution:
7 February 1831; amended many times; revised 14 July 1993 to create a federal state
Legal system:
civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch
head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers formally appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary and constitutional; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch and then approved by parliament
note: government coalition - VLD, MR, PS, SP.A-Spirit
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or Senaat in Dutch, Senat in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly elected by popular vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve four-year terms) and a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch, Chambre des Representants in French (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 18 May 2003 (next to be held no later than May 2007)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - SP.A-Spirit 15.5%, VLD 15.4%, CD & V 12.7%, PS 12.8%, MR 12.1%, VB 9.4%, CDH 5.6%; seats by party - SP.A-Spirit 7, VLD 7, CD & V 6, PS 6, MR 5, VB 5, CDH 2, other 2 (note - there are also 31 indirectly elected senators); Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - VLD 15.4%, SP.A-Spirit 14.9%, CD & V 13.3%, PS 13.0%, VB 11.6%, MR 11.4%, CDH 5.5%, Ecolo 3.1%; seats by party - VLD 25, SP.A-Spirit 23, CD & V 21, PS 25, VB 18, MR 24, CDH 8, Ecolo 4, other 2
note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six governments each with its own legislative assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the government; candidacies have to be submitted by the High Justice Council)
Political parties and leaders:
Flemish parties: Christian Democrats and Flemish or CD & V [Jo VANDEURZEN]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Bart SOMERS]; GROEN! (formerly AGALEV, Flemish Greens) [Vera DUA]; New Flemish Alliance or NVA [Bart DE WEVER]; Socialist Party.Alternative or SP.A [Johan Vande LANOTTE]; Spirit [Geert LAMBERT] (new party now associated with SP.A); Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) or VB [Frank VANHECKE]
Francophone parties: Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Michel JAVAUX, Isabelle DURANT, Claude BROUIR]; Humanist and Democratic Center of CDH [Joelle MILQUET]; National Front or FN [Daniel FERET]; Reform Movement or MR [Didier REYNDERS]; Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO]; other minor parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Christian, Socialist, and Liberal Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants
International organization participation:
ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Franciskus VAN DAELE
chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900
FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tom C. KOROLOGOS
embassy: Regentlaan 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710
telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111
FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France
Economy Belgium
Economy - overview:
This modern, private-enterprise economy has capitalized on its central geographic location, highly developed transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north. With few natural resources, Belgium must import substantial quantities of raw materials and export a large volume of manufactures, making its economy unusually dependent on the state of world markets. Roughly three-quarters of its trade is with other EU countries. Public debt is nearly 100% of GDP. On the positive side, the government has succeeded in balancing its budget, and income distribution is relatively equal. Belgium began circulating the euro currency in January 2002. Economic growth in 2001-03 dropped sharply because of the global economic slowdown, with moderate recovery in 2004-05.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$325 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$350.3 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.5% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$31,400 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 24%
services: 74.9% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
4.77 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 24.5%
services: 74.2% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8.4% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
4% (1989 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 23% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
25 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.8% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
19.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $180.4 billion
expenditures: $180.5 billion; including capital expenditures of $1.56 billion (2005 est.)
Public debt:
94.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk
Industries:
engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, transportation equipment, scientific instruments, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum
Industrial production growth rate:
-0.2% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
78.77 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 38.4%
hydro: 0.6%
nuclear: 59.3%
other: 1.8% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
79.66 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
8.3 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
14.7 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
13,060 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - consumption:
624,200 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
450,000 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
1.042 million bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
15.48 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
15.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
$6.305 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
$269.6 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, metals and metal products, foodstuffs
Exports - partners:
Germany 19.4%, France 17.3%, Netherlands 11.7%, UK 8.2%, US 6.4%, Italy 5.3% (2005)
Imports:
$264.5 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, transportation equipment, oil products
Imports - partners:
Netherlands 17.8%, Germany 17.2%, France 11.4%, UK 6.8%, Ireland 6.5%, US 5.4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$12 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
$980.1 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
Economic aid - donor:
ODA, $1.072 billion (2002)
Currency (code):
euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Currency code:
EUR
Exchange rates:
euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Belgium
Telephones - main lines in use:
4.801 million (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
9,131,700 (2004)
Telephone system:
general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network
international: country code - 32; submarine cables - 5; satellite earth stations - 7 (Intelsat - 3) (2005)
Radio broadcast stations:
FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios:
8.075 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
25 (plus 10 repeaters) (1997)
Televisions:
4.72 million (1997)
Internet country code:
.be
Internet hosts:
2,238,900 (2005)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
61 (2000)
Internet users:
5.1 million (2005)
Transportation Belgium
Airports:
43 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 7 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 16 (2006)
Heliports:
1 (2006)
Pipelines:
gas 1,485 km; oil 158 km; refined products 535 km (2004)
Railways:
total: 3,521 km
standard gauge: 3,521 km 1.435-m gauge (2,927 km electrified) (2005)
Roadways:
total: 149,757 km
paved: 117,110 km (including 1,747 km of expressways)
unpaved: 32,647 km (2003)
Waterways:
2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use) (2003)
Merchant marine:
total: 68 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,116,336 GRT/6,962,448 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 20, cargo 3, chemical tanker 2, container 12, liquefied gas 19, petroleum tanker 12
foreign-owned: 14 (Denmark 4, France 2, Germany 1, Greece 4, Hong Kong 1, Italy 1, UK 1)
registered in other countries: 105 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, The Bahamas 11, Belize 1, Cyprus 1, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 5, Georgia 1, Gibraltar 1, Greece 11, Hong Kong 3, Luxembourg 15, Malta 11, Mozambique 2, Netherlands 2, Netherlands Antilles 4, Panama 13, Portugal 7, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Singapore 9, Sweden 3) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Antwerp, Brussels, Gent, Liege, Oostende, Zeebrugge
Military Belgium
Military branches:
Belgian Armed Forces: Land, Naval, and Air Operations Commands (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
16 years of age for voluntary military service; women comprise approx. 7% of the Belgian armed forces (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,436,736
females age 16-49: 2,369,463 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,998,003
females age 16-49: 1,940,918 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 64,263
females age 16-49: 61,402 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$3.999 billion (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.3% (2003)
Transnational Issues Belgium
Disputes - international:
none
Illicit drugs:
growing producer of synthetic drugs; transit point for US-bound ecstasy; source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish, and marijuana entering Western Europe; despite a strengthening of legislation, the country remains vulnerable to money laundering related to narcotics, automobiles, alcohol, and tobacco

This page was last updated on 19 September, 2006