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CIA Seal  World Factbook Seal Azerbaijan
Flag of Azerbaijan
Map of Azerbaijan
Introduction Azerbaijan
Background:
Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population - was briefly independent from 1918 to 1920; it regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its territory and must support some 528,000 internally displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous, and the promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum resources remains largely unfulfilled.
Geography Azerbaijan
Location:
Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Geographic coordinates:
40 30 N, 47 30 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 86,600 sq km
land: 86,100 sq km
water: 500 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:
total: 2,013 km
border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km est.)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
dry, semiarid steppe
Terrain:
large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
Land use:
arable land: 20.62%
permanent crops: 2.61%
other: 76.77% (2005)
Irrigated land:
14,550 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
droughts
Environment - current issues:
local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
People Azerbaijan
Population:
7,961,619 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 25.8% (male 1,046,501/female 1,011,492)
15-64 years: 66.3% (male 2,573,134/female 2,706,275)
65 years and over: 7.8% (male 246,556/female 377,661) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 27.7 years
male: 26.3 years
female: 29.2 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.66% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
20.74 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
9.75 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
-4.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 79 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 81.08 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 76.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.85 years
male: 59.78 years
female: 68.13 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.46 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1,400 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Azerbaijani(s), Azeri(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani, Azeri
Ethnic groups:
Azeri 90.6%, Dagestani 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.9% (1999 census)
note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region
Religions:
Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
Languages:
Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.5%
female: 98.2% (2003 est.)
Government Azerbaijan
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form: Azarbaycan
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 51 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic (muxtar respublika)
rayons: Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Astara Rayonu, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Susa Rayonu, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu
cities: Ali Bayramli Sahari, Baki Sahari, Ganca Sahari, Lankaran Sahari, Mingacevir Sahari, Naftalan Sahari, Saki Sahari, Sumqayit Sahari, Susa Sahari, Xankandi Sahari, Yevlax Sahari
autonomous republic: Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi
Independence:
30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, 28 May (1918)
Constitution:
adopted 12 November 1995
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)
head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Abbas ABBASOV (since 10 November 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 October 2003 (next to be held October 2008); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAR 14%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 6 November 2005 (next to be held in November 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Yeni 58, Azadliq coalition 8, CSP 2, YES 2, Motherland 2, other parties with single seats 7, independents 42, undetermined 4
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform" faction; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA]; Motherland Party; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; Yeni Azerbaijan Party; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADLI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Araz ALIZADE and Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani Forces (UPAF)
International organization participation:
AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV
chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne E. DERSE
embassy: 83 Azadlyg Prospecti, Baku AZ1007
mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
telephone: [994] (12) 4980-335 through 337
FAX: [994] (12) 4656-671
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band
Economy Azerbaijan
Economy - overview:
Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production declined through 1997, but has registered an increase every year since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to long-term oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997. A consortium of Western oil companies is scheduled to begin pumping 1 million barrels a day from a large offshore field in early 2006, through a $4 billion pipeline it built from Baku to Turkey's Mediterranean port of Ceyhan. Economists estimate that by 2010 revenues from this project will double the country's current GDP. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress: the need for stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector, the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region, and the pervasive corruption. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil wealth.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$37.92 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$10.4 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
26.4% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$4,800 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14.1%
industry: 45.7%
services: 40.2% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
5.45 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 41%
industry: 7%
services: 52% (2001)
Unemployment rate:
1.1% official rate (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
49% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
36.5 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.6% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
54.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $3.18 billion
expenditures: $2.986 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
11.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
Industries:
petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
40% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
20 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 89.7%
hydro: 10.3%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
20.25 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
700 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
2.35 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
477,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
123,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
589 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
5.13 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
9.2 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
849.5 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
$167.3 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
$6.117 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs
Exports - partners:
Italy 29.1%, Czech Republic 14.3%, France 12%, Germany 9.5%, Russia 5%, Romania 4.5%, Georgia 4.4% (2005)
Imports:
$4.656 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Russia 18.9%, Germany 12.1%, UK 8.5%, Turkey 7.4%, Ukraine 6.4%, Netherlands 5.3%, China 5.2%, France 4.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$1.192 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
$1.873 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA, $140 million (2000 est.)
Currency (code):
Azerbaijani manat (AZM)
Currency code:
AZM
Exchange rates:
Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,727.1 (2005), 4,913.48 (2004), 4,910.73 (2003), 4,860.82 (2002), 4,656.58 (2001)
note: on 1 January 2006 Azerbaijan revalued its currency, with 5,000 old manats equal to 1 new manat
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Azerbaijan
Telephones - main lines in use:
1,091,400 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1,456,500 (2004)
Telephone system:
general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 10 main lines per 100 persons is low (2002)
domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan
international: country code - 994; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2005)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios:
175,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
2 (1997)
Televisions:
170,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
.az
Internet hosts:
460 (2005)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
2 (2000)
Internet users:
408,000 (2005)
Transportation Azerbaijan
Airports:
36 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 27
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 7 (2006)
Heliports:
1 (2006)
Pipelines:
gas 4,451 km; oil 1,518 km (2004)
Railways:
total: 2,957 km
broad gauge: 2,957 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2005)
Roadways:
total: 27,016 km
paved: 12,698 km (including 128 km of expressways)
unpaved: 14,318 km (2003)
Merchant marine:
total: 84 ships (1000 GRT or over) 405,395 GRT/437,088 DWT
by type: cargo 26, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 43, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 3
registered in other countries: 4 (Georgia 2, Malta 2) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Baku (Baki)
Military Azerbaijan
Military branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces
Military service age and obligation:
men between 18 and 35 are liable for military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; length of military service is 18 months and 12 months for university graduates (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,961,973
females age 18-49: 2,033,186 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,314,955
females age 18-49: 1,676,408 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 82,358
females age 18-49: 78,067 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$121 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2.6% (FY99)
Transnational Issues Azerbaijan
Disputes - international:
Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratify Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenges Azerbaijan's hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian; Azerbaijan and Georgia continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 8,367 (Russia)
IDPs: 528,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe

This page was last updated on 19 September, 2006